THOMAS HARRIS OF VIRGINIA

1636-1688

 
HARRIS OF WOLF SWAMP

INTRODUCTION

A basic premise of genealogical research of early English settlers of Virginia is that they were part of a kinship group,that protected and enhanced their members interests by promoting marriages within them, with marriages between close degrees of cousins being frequent, as were marriages between those more peripherally connected to the kinship group.

Kinship groups formed barriers to social interaction: ‘There were wide boundaries between socio-economic groups. These boundaries were rarely crossed. Marriages almost invariably took place between members of the same common interest group. Kinship and family loyalty formed barriers to social interaction’ (1).

When proposed pedigrees do not show English correlation to families that intermarried in Virginia they are most likely to be false.

That those of this account who embarked to the ‘New World’ seeking to escape from the tyranny of the hierarchial English class system – the shackles of the landlord dominated parish, and a State religion that stressed social order was given by Providence – were not of the lower rank of emigrant is shown by a study of Berkely Hundred in 1619. Emigrants terms of employment were formalised in England before emigration, and clearly set out indididual and family resposibilities.

Any study of the local histories of families mentioned in English Wills concerning Virginian settlers in the 17th. century will show a ‘continuation of association’ between families that extended back centuries, sometimes to the ‘conquest’ era.

Women formed an essential part of ‘kinship transmission’, as extant letters show, with them taking an active interest in marriage arrangements. This was of necessity. In a world devoid of ‘social security’, any marriage that did not add to a family’s economic stability was a threat, and the greatest dread of the ‘middling order’ was to be plunged into the ranks of the wage labourer. The major theme of all Jane Austen’s novels was that of advantageous marriage.

Overarching the basic model of Kinship as a ‘socio-economic enterprise’ was the relationship of families to the dominant family or families within their group. Powerful families provided the economic ‘umbrella’ under which others operated.

Another bond within kinship groups was that of association through shared ventures in trade, or through having a son apprenticed to a wife’s uncle or brother.

Essentially, settlers of Virginia were English people in a foreign land, who maintained English traditions.

They sought to recreate their English parishes in Virginia, hoping to sit in a pew which was nearer the pulpit than had been the case in England.

Many such settlers lived in the parishes of St Olave and St Saviour, Southwark, London, from where they were exhorted to emigrate. William Symondes, ‘Preacher at Saint Saviours in Southwarke’, wrote ‘A Sermon Preach’d at White Chappel, in the Presence of many Honourable and Worshipfull Adventurers and Planters for Virginia’, on April 25, 1609. ‘Published for the benefit and use of the Colony, planted and to be planted there, and for the advancement of their Christian purpose’.

It is a fact that Southwark played an important role in the colonisation of Virginia, its port being central to trade, whether that was in victuals, people, or tobacco, and many county-based families maintained a business and house here.

The process of Virginia settlement was an ongoing one, as evidenced by much extant inter-family correspondence, and sons and grandsons often ascribed to a Virginia ‘patriarch’ were as likely to be nephews and great-nephews who followed in the footsteps of the ‘pathfinder’.

Families shared associations, and it is difficult to disambiguate one particular strand of them from another; but that would have been less important then as now, as family was once a more extended concept than now perceived, less imbibed with a sense of the uniqueness of the individual.

SOUTHWARK

St Olave or St Olave’s, Hart Street, Southwark,is one of the few surviving medieval buildings in London and the burial place of Samuel Pepys. It is a place of peace: John Betjeman described St Olave’s as “a country church in the world of Seething Lane”. It is first recorded in the 13th century as St Olave-towards-the-Tower, as a stone building. The present building dates from circa 1450. On the east side of St Olave’s, there is a stained glass window depicting Queen Elizabeth I standing with two tall bells at her feet. She held a thanksgiving service at St Olave’s on Trinity Sunday, May 15, 1554, while she was still Princess Elizabeth, to celebrate her release from the Tower of London.

In 1212, the greater part of Southwark was destroyed by fire. The church of St Saviour was then dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. In 1273, Walter, Archbishop of York, granted an indulgence of thirty days to all who should contribute to the rebuilding of the sacred edifice, and towards the end of the following century the church was entirely rebuilt. Gower, the poet, contributed a considerable portion of the funds. It was in this church (in 1424), that James I. of Scotland wedded the daughter of the Earl of Somerset, and niece of the great Cardinal, the golden-haired beauty, Jane Beaufort, of whom, during his imprisonment at Windsor, the royal poet had become enamoured’ (2).

Southwark was not a place that would have been beloved by the Mayflower Puritans, as indicated by William Boyd: ‘Shakespeare’s working life was in Southwark, south of the river, and London Bridge, a noisome, rank and dangerous district, freer of the City of London’s legal edicts by virtue of its location, and home to its theatres, pleasure gardens, bear-fighting pits, innumerable taverns and brothels’ ( 3). An indenture, dated February 21, 1622, by which ownership of the Globe playhouse and other properties in Southwark and in Bread Street in London was restored to Sir Matthew Brend, shows William Shakespeare as a tenant in the parish of St Saviour, Southwark, and George Yeardley, Governor of Virginia, also of St Saviours, may have met ‘the bard’ as a young man, or have seen one of his plays performed at the Globe.

The same comment could also be applied to William Harris, who married Elizabeth Stanlie, on February 20, 1602, at St. Olave’s, Southwark. She was probably related to the William Stanley, who was a defendant in the case of Garland v. Stanley, regarding ‘money matters’, in London, in 1647 (4). The same families were also involved in the case of Mary Garlande widow v. William Stanley and others in 1651, also concerning ‘money matters’ (5).

A Garland family of Southwark are first evidenced in 1561, when the Will of John Garland, innholder, requested that he was burried at St Saviour Church (6). He named Katherine his wife, Katherine, Martha, Jane, Thomas the elder, Thomas the younger, William the elder, William the younger, his children, all unmarried. One of these said Williams was probably the ‘William Garland, brewer’ who was the overseer of the Will of ‘Nicholas Hicks of St Saviour, yeoman’, proved January 21, 1603, in which he named Elizabeth Hickes his wife; George Hicks his brother; Katherine his sister, wife of Robert Willson, dwelling at Elmley Castle in Worcestershire; Audrey, his wife’s sister, the likely husband of William Garland (7). A Thomas Garland was the overseer of the Will of Thomas Edmondson, waterman, of St Saviour, proved April 8, 1592, in which he bequests ‘to the poor of St Olave and of St Saviour’, and names ‘Thomas Garland innholder and his wife’, the testator’s ‘cousins’ (8). It was probably the same Thomas who was the overseer of Richard Dodson, of St Saviour, whose Will was proved September 2, 1591.

The naming of early collateral associations may seem superflous to some, yet, by noting the earliest ties of kinship it is possible to trace the origin of an individual or family when such ties are repeated, especially when exact relationships are not certain.

By this precept, it may be fairly adduced that the Robert Harris who married Margaret Garland, on April 8, 1627, at St Olave, was related to William Harris who married Elizabeth Stanlie; perhaps he was their son.

In this regard, some notions of certainty have to be abandoned. When attemping to reconstruct a family’s genealogy, it is sometimes only possible to give a reasonable supposition; who is given as a brother may be a cousin; a father may be an uncle, etc., yet it appears certain which family an individual belongs to.

This can be said of William Harris and Peter Garland: William Harris, ‘Fishmonger’, of St Saviour, deceased 1600, was overseer of the Will of ‘Jeffrey Williamson, of St Saviour, fishmonger’, proved April 8, 1589. Others named were Elizabeth, his wife, and Thomas Williamson, his brother (9). The said William Harris married, on May 11, 1594, Sarah Trehearne, daughter of John Treherne; another daughter marrying Edward Griffin. He was the father of Thomas Griffin, father of 1. George Griffin, whose wife, Joan Griffin, as described in her will, proved April 19, 1661, was ‘Joan Griffin of the County of High Nockect in the River Ausemund in the Country of Virginia and now being in St. Olave’s parish near London. 2. Thomas Griffin, father of his namesake, appraiser of the estate of Richard Williamson, Appraisal taken November 16, 1665. Mr. Peter Garland Adm., Appraisers: Francis Ayers, Richard Williamson, Thomas Griffin’. Reg: August 9, 1666.
(10).

It seems highly probable that Thomas Williamson, aforesaid, was the ancestor of Richard Williamson, and he the father of Dr. James Williamson and Dr. Robert Williamson, and that William Harris was his brother-in-law

Thomas Griffin’s widow married Samuel Griffin of Northumberland county, who was almost certainly a close kinsman of her former husband.

This Harris family were also ‘cousins’of the Woodrufs. After the death of William Harris, his widow, Sara Treherne, married William Ironmonger, named in the will of his uncle, ‘Thomas Ironmonger of St Saviour, waterman’, whose Will was proved June 15, 1601, which names ‘Margaret Woodroof his sister and her husband’ (11).

William Harris was the father of William Harris Jr., who married a sister of ‘John Shepeard, Grocer of Southwark’ (12), they both being recorded here: ‘Peter Pope, notary public, in Rotterdam, Holland. That John Shepeard of Rotterdam appoints ‘his well beloved brother Wm Harris‘ to receive ac/s from Wm. Underwood or James Williamson, merchants, living in Virginia, particularly for all goods delivered the said Williamson in the absence of Underwood … late end of the year 1648′ (13).

The connection of the Garland, Harris, Tyrrell, and Williamson families was through their association in the Fishmongers Company, which was active in the Virginia trade. ‘Robert Terrell, brother of Richmond, and William Terrell, became a member of the Fishmongers Company, merchants of London. He carried on considerable trade with the colonists of Virginia, and made regular voyages to this country where he personally transacted business. There are several items in the York County, Virginia records in which he was a witness to deeds and other transactions, the earliest we have seen being dated 1647, 1650, and 1662. In the court orders of Charles City County it was mentioned that Robert Terrell served on a jury of inquest 16 March, 1662. Vol. XVI, Va. Hist. Mag, p. 190, tells of a power of attorney from John Wickens and John Robinson, merchants of London to Robert Terrell, citizen and Fishmonger of London, authorizing him to collect all debts due them in Virginia, also in York County records is a power of attorney made by Robert Terrell, appointing Thomas Williamson to attend to business for him in Virginia’ (14). The Garlands and Terrells intermarried in Hanover Co.

The Terrells were of Reading, Berkshire, where Robert Terrell, clothier, in his Will dated 1643, names John, Robert, Richmond, and William as his sons. This introduces an important point in the understanding of the origins of Virginia colonists; that such ports as Southwark acted as a powerful magnet that attracted the sons of provincial merchants to its midst, who sought to increase their family’s wealth, and their marriage prospects, through engaging in seaborne trade, especially with the emerging market in Virginia. Families from a wide geographical spread came to live and work in Southwark

Returning to the marriage records of St Olave’s, on May 25, 1643, William Harris married ‘Elizabeth Arnell’. It can fairly be summised that he was closely related to William Harris, aforesaid, who married Elizabeth Stanlie, on February 20, 1602, at St. Olave’s; wherehas it is certain she was of the Arnold family of Southwark.

The Arnold family of Virginia were inhabitants of Southwark: ‘Edmund Bowyer and Richard Hutton, M.P.s for Southwark, co. Surrey, to the lord Keeper, certify the appointment of John Arnold of St. Olave’s, dyer, and Anthony Smith of St. Saviour’s, grocer, as collectors of the fifteenth and tenth in the borough’ (15).

John Arnold died in 1620 (16). His Will mentions his brother, Thomas, whose son, Thomas Arnold, by Will dated June 14, 1669, gave to the churchwardens of St Olave’s parish the sum of £40. Thomas Arnold gift is administered by his son, George Arnold Esq. Both father and son are witnessed in this court case: ‘Fauntleroy v Arnold. Plaintiffs: Henry Fauntleroy. Defendants: Thomas Arnold and George Arnold. Subject: water supply St Martin Ludgate, London (17).

Henry Fauntleroy was baptised on Sept. 13, 1620, at Hedley, Hampshire, and buried at Isleworth, London. He was the brother of Colonel Moore Fauntleroy, whose son, Colonel William Fauntleroy, married Katherine Griffin, daughter of Colonel Samuel Griffin, aforsaid. In the records of Old Rappahannock Co. (18), an account of the Will of Francis Slaughter states: ‘to my brother-in-law, Coll. Moore Fauntleroy, my book entitled Hooker‘s Ecclesiastical Policy’. Francis Slaughter had married Elizabeth, a daughter of William (aforesaid) and Margaret Underwood, who married 2. Capt. John Catlett. Elizabeth’s sister, Anne, married James Williamson.

John Catlett’s family were associated with the Taliaferro family of St. Olave’s, Southwark. Robert Taliaferro, the immigrant, married Katherine Dedman, the daughter of Henry Dedman, who was granted 350 acres of land in Rappahannock River on June 27, 1650. After his death, his widow married the Rev. Charles Grymes, the stepfather of Katherine Dedman. A Grymes family are recorded in the registers of St. Olave’s: Edward Grymes was baptised on June 7, 1622, son of Christopher Grymes. These are not unconnected threads in the Harris narrative, as will be shown.

A William Harris was born in St Olave in 1647, and, again, his exact relationship the aforementioned Harris of St Olave’s can not be adduced; the wave can not be seperated from the tide, but this tide seems to have headed for Louisa Co., Virginia, carrying families of Arnold, Garland, Hampton, Harris, Overton, Terrell, Thornton, and Stanley; where ‘Wm Harris and wife, Hennerettah of the parish of Fredericksville, Louisa, deed to Martin Baker of Hanover, for good causes, thereunto moving, part of tract granted by patent March 24, 1725 unto William Harris, and by said William given said Wm. Harris, his son’ (19). This refers to the bequest made in the Will of William Harris, prior to 1734, in Hanover County. Louisa County was formed from Hanover County in 1742.

William Harris, the son, I suggest, married Temperance Overton, daughter of James Overton, son of John Overton of St Sepulchres, London. He held ‘1500 acres, New Land, Hanover Co., adj. Mrs. Arnold and George Woodroof’s lines; on Overton’s fork of Elk Creek (20).

William’s brother was John Harris, who held ‘400 acres New Land, Hanover County; adj. Ambrose Joshua Smith, Capt. Thomas Carr and Ann Arnold; on low side of Great Rockey Creek (21).

William Harris, the grantee of 1725, was ‘William Harris, Gent. (who was granted) 76 acs. (new lease), Hanover Co; beg. at James Glen’s corner; to N. side the Little River; on the Newmarket line; 24 Mar. 1725, 10 Shill’ (22).

At a Vestry held Lower Church in Saint Pauls Parish, January 2, 1726 – ‘Thomas Anderson and Charles Hudson were elected and appoint’d Vestry men in room of William Harris and James Overton having both first Subscribed the Test’ (23).

James Overton is recorded thus: ‘James Overton, 400 acs. (new lease), Hanover Co.; on N. side the S. fork of Elk Cr.; on John Raglin’s line; Feb. 20, 1723, 40 shill’. John Harris of Cedar Creek, who died before 1745, established the Quaker Meeting with John Stanley in 1721, it being assumed that he married Mary Stanley, John Stanley’s daughter, or a niece of John Stanley.

The said James Overton was the likely son of John Overton and Sara Garrett: John Overton, of S’ Sepulchre’s, Lond., Stationer, Widr, ab’ 35, & Sara Garrett, of S’ Olave’s, Southwark, Spr, ab’ 28, alleged by John Garrett, of St Olave’s, Printer’ (1676). He was a likely close relative of William Overton, who married Elizabeth Waters, daughter of Samuel and Anne waters, of St. Sepulchre, London, and sister of John Waters, who bought land fron William Thornton, as detailed hereinafter.

John Overton ‘was apprenticed to Thomas Gould in the Stationers’ Company in 1655 for eight years; he was freed in 1663. In 1665, he bought the shop and stock of Peter Stent, after his death that year; to do this, he must have been given a significant capital by his father. In 1668, he moved back again to the White Horse without Newgate, but no longer in Giltspur Street, but instead at the corner of Little Old Bailey near the Fountain Tavern against St Sepulchre’s Church. In 1677, Overton married, in a second marriage, Sara, sister of the printseller John Garrett, who is known to have been a friend of his. A presumably related Henry Overton was a bookseller in Pope’s Head Alley. Overton issued five catalogues between 1667 and c. 1672, and there is an anonymous mezzotint portrait of him made in 1708. John Overton retired in 1707, and sold his stock to his second son Henry (b. 1676) who had married Sarah Baker in 1706. He died in 1713. His will, signed in 1711, shows that he, his wife, and two of their children (Henry and Sarah), were all living in the White Horse. His bequests amounted to over £1,500 – a very large sum – and included capital sums to two other sons, Philip and James, to enable them to set up in trade; a fourth son Thomas had last been heard of in America in 1702‘ (Brit. Mus., cit. Tyacke pp. 130-4).

James Overton, son of John Overton, the printer, was likely to be Captain James Overton. Temperance Overton, on chronological grounds, was most likely a daughter or niece of James Overton. She married William Harris, descended from the Harris family of Southwark, London, and not a stranger from Wales.

The connections of these London printsellers extended to the Lydalls:

1. Robert Peake, the Elder (c. 1551–1619).
1.1. William Peake (c. 1580–1639), painter and printseller, freeman of the Goldsmiths. William Webb (active 1628-45), print publisher, re-issued some sets of half-length women: the Four Complexions, the Seven Deadly Sins, and the Seven Liberal Arts (24). The first of these went to William Peake (d.1639); the last to Stent, and from Stent to John Overton, aforsaid (‘of S’ Sepulchre’s, Lond., Stationer’). John Overton’s father-in-law, James Garrett, would have known very well his fellow parishioner and printseller, Robert Peake.
1.2. Sir Robert Peake (1592–1667), died in 1667, and was buried in St. Sepulchre’s Church, London. As ‘Robert Peake goldsmith‘, he is entered in a subsidy roll for the Holborn Cross Precinct of St Sepulchre’s parish of 1641. The Will of Sir Robert Peake, citizen and Goldsmith of London, proved, London, July 26, 1667, bequeathed to to ‘my cousin and sometime servant, George Lyddall, of Virginia, gentleman, £300′. Robert Peake married Martha Woodward, daughter of George Woodward, of Upton-cum-Chalvey, Buckinghamshire. Martha Woodward’s sister married Thomas Lydall, and their son, George Lydall, Peake’s nephew by marriage, appears in his Will as his ‘cousin’. George Lydall’s son, John Lyddall, patented land with William Overton, their properties adjoining, in New Kent Co.

The Hampton and Thornton kinship group of St. Olave’s, Southwark is an important thread in the Harris narrative:

1. Thomas Thornton. He is named in the Will of Sir Ambrose Nicholas Kt. Citizen and Alderman (25), touching the ‘disposition of his twelve small tenements in Mugwell Street, St. Olave within Crepulgate’, who bequeaths the properties to the Salters’ Company. The houses are to be used as Almshouses for ‘twelve poor men or women free of the City of London not being young persons or such as shall accustomably use to beg in the streets’. He bequeaths all his ‘messuages and easements in St. Alphage and St. Olave Crepulgate to the same’, one named occupant being Richard Overton, Gent. The Will is witnessed by Edward Boldero, whose granddaughter married William Harris, aforesaid, partner of William Underwood in Virginia, and Thomas Thornton.
1.1. John Thornton, married (1614), Mary Ann Deddum (Dedman), in St. Olave, Hart Street. (Robert Taliaferro, also of Southwark, married Katherine Dedman Grymes; their son, Francis Taliaferro, married Elizabeth Catlett.
1.1.1. Joseph Thornton: Thornton v King. Plaintiffs: Joseph Thornton and others. Defendants: Anne King, widow. Subject: property in St Olave, Hart Street, London. 1655 (26).
1.1.2. William Thornton: he sold 600 ac. of land (‘the dower my wife Elizabeth’) to John Waters (27), son of Samuel and Anne Waters, of St. Sepulchre, London, and brother of Elizabeth (Waters) Overton.
1.1.2.1. Francis Thornton, married (April 13, 1674), Alice Savage, daughter of Anthony Savage.
1.1.2.1.1. Francis Thornton; he bequested, in his Will, dated 9 September 9, 1714, ‘To son John, the land lying on the branch of the Naull and Massaponax Rivers, about seven hundred and fifty acres, and two lots in Fredericksburg’. It is not improbable that he was a cousin of John Thornton, recorded in a land grant in IOW Co., dated Dec. 10, 1723: William Thornton of the Lower Parish (and Elizabeth his wife) to Thomas Hampton a parcel of land, part of 390 acres granted to John Thornton, April 20, 1682, being 328 acres now deeded; test. John Powell. Same, January 21, 1724, test. Richard Glin and William Thornton’.
1.1.2.1.1.1. Mildred Thornton, married Charles Washington, brother of the President.
1.1.2.1.2. Sarah Thornton, married (August 1, 1706), Lawrence Taliaferro, son of Robert Taliaferro, of Southwark, London, and Katherine Dedman.
1.1.2.1.3. Martha Thornton, married Thomas Catlett, son of Col. John Catlett, Jr. and Elizabeth Gaines; he had married, firstly, Elizabeth Taliaferro, daughter of Lt. Col. John ‘The Ranger’ Taliaferro, and Sarah Smith.

William Hampton, wool merchant, of London, was born May 28, 1592. He shipped wool from Virginia to his brother, Laurence Hampton* of London, a merchant tailor, who was the father of Thomas Hampton, whose Will (February 8, 1689), was witnessed by John Thornton (28). Thomas Hampton was the father of John Hampton, of Southwark, London, who married 1. Mary Mann, who was not unlikely of the family of Captain John Mann ‘of St. Olave, Southwark, Surrey’ (29). *His son and namesake married a sister of the aforsaid James Garrett.

John Hampton received Hampfield from his father in 1677, at same time he received 157 ac. of adjoining land from John Mann. Mann’s deed calls him ‘Capt. John Hampton’, and explains his intended marriage to his daughter, Mary. Before 1704, he moved to King William, Pamunkey Neck. His will is dated November 10, 1718. He married, secondly, … Cary. His issue, by his first wife, included Mary Hampton, wife of Edward Wade; William Hampton, husband of Martha (Thornton) Catlett; and John Hampton Jr., b. 3 June 1683, d. 26 Jun 1748, in Fairfax Co., who m. (1712), Margaret Wade, born May 1, 1694, in St. Peters Parish, New Kent Co.

John Mann’s brother was Thomas Mann, who, with his wife, Elizabeth, sold 150 acres on Blackwater River to Theophilus Joyner in exchange for 2,050 pounds of tobacco. The 150 acres was part of the 300 acre grant to Thomas Mann, dated September 22, 1682. The site was adjoining property owned by William Mayo and (his brother-in-law) Bridgeman Joyner (30).

On June 9, 1690, Thomas Mann of Isle of Wight sold 100 acres acres on Corowaungh Swamp to Henry Hearne of Nansemond Co. The property was adjoining James Johnson. Wit: James Bryan, Bridgeman Joyner and James Benn. (31). The Will of James Benn, proved April 9, 1697, names his son, James Benn Jr., who died in Southwark, London; see Will of James Benn, Merchant of Barnaby Street Southwark, Surrey. February 1, 1727 (32). The Will of Michael Fulgham, dated February 17, 1690, named daughter Ann (Harris), who married Robert Harris; and was witnessed by James Benn. Robert Harris was the son of Thomas Harris, who died in 1688.

James Bryan was still living in isle of Wight County when he disposed of the above patent in February 1712: ‘James Bryan of the lower parish to James Tullagh of the same, 300 acs in lower parish being part of 762 acs granted to said Bryan on 20 Oct 1689 adj. Blackwater, Richard Vick, Cullams Landing’.

On February 4, 1717, James Bryan, of Albemarle Co., NC, deeded to Thomas Davis ‘315 acs between Kingsale Swamp and the main Blackwater River adj. William Mayoe, Richard Boothe, Hodges Council, and Brideman Joyner, being part of a patent granted to said James Bryan on February 22, 1682’ (33).

James Bryan was baptised in July, 1637, in Copenhagen; and died in 1733, in Bertie Precinct, NC. aged 96.  He married Sarah Duck, March 1668, in St. Dunstan Parish, Stepney, London. Sarah was baptised on September 3, 1644, at Wandsworth, London, and died before 1730, in Bertie Precinct.

He was the great-uncle of Joseph Bryan Sr., born 1716, Burlington County, NJ.; died in 1805, Jefferson County, KY, aged 89. Joseph Bryan m. (1) Hester (probably) Hampton.

‘In the name of God Amen; I Joseph Bryan of the County of Jefferson, State of Kentucky, being weak in body but of sound and perfect mind and memory, blessed be almighty God for the same, do make and publish this my last will and testament in manner and form following (that is to say) after my lawful debts are settled I give and bequeath unto my beloved (2nd) wife Alee a gray mare, a bed and furniture and thirty dollars, either cash or property. I also bequeath to my sons, Samuel, Joseph and John Bryan the sum of fifty dollars each, either cash or property … And Ido hereby appoint my two sons Joseph and John Bryan executors of this my last will and testament, hereby revoking all former wills sand testaments made by me. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twentieth day of November 1804. Joseph Bryan (Seal) Signed, sealed and published as his last will and testament in the presence of us: Edward Cox Sr., David Enochs, Ephraim Hampton‘ (34). This being Ephraim Hampton Jr., son of Ephraim Hampton and Lemander Harris, daughter of Robert Harris, as follows.

Returning to William Harris, the suggested husband of Temperance Overton. His issue may have included the Robert Harris who married Mourning Glenn; her Will proved 1776, Albemarle County; John Rhodes and William Shelton, executors. She was probably the daughter of James Glenn, aforsaid. Robert Harris makes a bequest in 1752: ‘I, Robert Harris of Fredericksville Par., Louisa Co., for natural love and affection to my son-in-law, Willaim Shelton of afsd. Par. two mulatto slaves called Sherwood and Moses. Sig. Robert Harris. wit. Tyree Harris, Ben. Brown, Jr., Robert Wilson’ (35).

His son was probably this Christopher Harris: ‘The lands of Edw’d. Garland, Jas. Overton, Xpher. Harris, Jno. Glenn, Sam’l. Reynolds, Henry Farmer, Rob’t. Jennings & Abra. Venable being one precinct of which Edw’d. Garland and Jas. Overton were Overseers who made this return, the within Order executed in presence of James Glenn, Sam’l Reynolds, Abra. Venable, Henry Farmer, Mr. Robt. Jennings did not appear for his Land and Sam’l. Reynolds is all in one pattent and no Division’ (36).

Another son may have been the Robert Harris, who, with his wife Lemenda (probably Sherwood), deeded to Stephan Ragland, on October 16, 1742, 60lbs for 230 acres. He was also recorded in the May Court of 1741: Robert Harris late of Hanover County Virgina, now of Bertie, land on Roanoak River adj. to Ragland at Turbevills Run. Witn. P. Smith, Nathaneil Hill, Jn., Arnold Brown.

His Will, dated June 5, 1785, reads: ‘In the name of God amen I Robert Harris … of the County of Granville being weak in body but of sound mind and memory and understanding do make this my last will and testament … I give to my niece Mary Harris daughter of David Harris … I give to my grandson Thomas Harris son of Thomas Harris … I give to my daughter Lemander Hampton … All the rest of my estate … equally divided amongst my sons Christopher Harris, Sherwood Harris, Robert Harris, David Harris, and Samuel Harris … In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my seal this 5th day of June 1785. Robert Harris (Seal) (37).

I suggest his wife was a granddaughter of Philip Sherwood, and a niece of Sarah Rosier, who married, firstly, William Willis; their daughter being Mary Willis, who married Isaac Arnold (38). Sarah Rosier’s third husband was Rush Hudson. At a court held April 2, 1736, an additional inventory of the Estate of Rush Hudson, deceased, is granted to Edward Turbervile and Sarah, his wife, and they entered into a bond of November 7, 1735, with Thomas Thatcher, Benjamin Berryman, Isaac Arnold, and Neal McCormick, their securities. Sarah Rosier married, fourthly, Edward Tuberville.

Lemander Harris married Ephraim Hampton, whose Will reads: ‘In the name of God Amen I Ephraim Hampton of Rowan County and State of North Carolina having called to mind that it is appointed for all men once to die and being of Sound mind and memory, I do hereby ordain this my last Will and Testament in the manner and form following (to wiit) My will and desire is that my wife Lemender to live in the house where I now live during her lifetime or widowhood and to keep as much of my moveable property as She wants to live upon, and to Keep my negro woman Rachel her Lifetime or widowhood, and have her sufficient maintenance off the plantation, and my Will and desire is that my Son Thomas Hampton to have a Bed and furniture and the Waggon and hind gears and a table, and that all the rest of my moveable property to be sold and devided Equally between my Daughter Fanny Shaw, my daughter Patsy Smith, my daughter Lemender Hill, my daughter Ritter Brown, and my Will and desire is that my land be equally divided between my two Sons Thomas Hampton and Robert Hampton, so that they both get a part of the River Bottom and for the lower End to include the House where I do now live and my will and desire is that the said Thomas Hampton & Robert Hampton do pay out of the price of the land to my son Ephraim Hampton One Hundred and Eighty Eight Dollars, to my son David Hampton two hundred and Eighty eIght and to my son, Oliver Hampton One Hundred and Eighty Eight Dollars which the said Thomas and Robert Hampton is to have six annual payments one sixth part every year untill all is paid up. And it is my will and Desire that after my wifes decease all what she has kept to live upon be sold and the money equally devided between my four daughters – Fanny Shaw, Patsy Smith, Lemender Hill and Ritter Brown. I acknowledge this to be my last Will and Testament, disannulling all others’ (39).

Ephraim Hampton was the son of Andrew Hampton. Taxables for Granville Co, NC. 1754: Andrew Hampton and son, Ephraim. 1764: Andrew Hampton, sons John, Joseph, Ezekiel, and Ephraim. They were all taken by Robert Harris. Procession Return in 1757 Of Andrew Hampton and Felmon Bradford: ‘one track and part of another for Robart Harras in the presents of him self Robart Harras one one track for Felman Bradford in the presents of Felmon Bradford Juner and a part of one track for Elner Adcok in the presents of Lenard Adcok and one track of Land for Andrew Hampton in the presents of Ephram Hampton’.

In 1758, Andrew Hampton was selected, with Robert Harris, as one of twelve vestrymen for the new Parish of Granville. His son, Ezekiel Hampton is recorded on the Rowen County NC tax list, in the district of Capt. Eakle. John Hampton was recorded in the same district, and, in adjacent districts, a William, John, David, and William Hampton are recorded.

Ezekiel Hampton was the father of Bridget Hampton, who married William Gutridge Garland. There issue included: 1. John William Garland, born September 4, 1785, in Washington Co., TN; died October 24, 1863,in Mitchell Co., NC; who married Rebecca Stanley, born January 27, 1795. 2. Bridget Garland, who married Swinfield Stanley, born 1797, died 1866. 3. Samuel Gutridge Garland, born 1795, died 1873, in Limestone Cove, Carter Co. (now Unicoi Co.) TN., who married Mary Stanley, born 1803, died 1878. 4. Telithia Garland, born May 22, 1798, died April 17, 1881, who married William Stanley, born February 17, 1798, died March 29, 1883.

Returning to the Terrells, of Southwark, London: Ann Dabney, married Henry Terrell, son of Joel Terrell (son of Richmond Terrell). Joel Terrell’s brothers were 1. William Terrell, who married Susannah Waters; she being the daughter of James Waters: Sir Robert Peake, ‘goldsmith of London’, whose Will was proven in London, May 26, 1667 (P.C.C. Carr 96), bequeathed ‘to cousin James Waters, the son of Joseph Waters,£50′. Joseph Waters was the brother of Samuel Waters, whose daughter, Elizabeth, married William Overton. William Terrell and Susannah Waters had issue: William Richmond Terrell, who is recorded thus: Grantor: William Watkins, Grantee: William Terrell, October 25, 1757: William Watkins of Fredericksville Par. Louisa Co. and Keziah his wife, to William Terrell of St. Martins Par., Hanover County for £150 for 150 acres and plantation in Fredericksville Par. on Cubb Creek on south side, adj. William Harris being part of 400 acres granted to William Harris, dec’d. by patent Mar. 24, 1725. Sig. William Watkins and Kezia (x) Watkins. 2. Robert Terrell, whose daughter, Mary Terrell, married Rush Hudson, who died after 1746, son of Sarah Rosier and Rush Hudson (40).

What, then, has been accounted for? I would strongly suggest this to be the continuing marriages within an English kinship group, that tenaciously strengthened its bonds over each passing generation, enhancing general and individual economic good. In Darwinian terms, these kinship groups were ‘species’ that attempted to adapt to the harsh realities of their time; they did so by a combination of effort and resources. The social nature of colonisation is anathema to those that have been Hollywood-fed on a diet of iconoclastic heroes, who are portrayed as almost single handedly conquering the American wilderness. Any understanding of the nature of colonisation must commence with an understanding of how the English middling order of yeoman farmers, lawyers, and tradesmen plotted marriages for their children, with all the concentration of a game of chess; as one wrong move might prove disasterous for their family; with this reality replacing cherished myths.

REFERENCES
1. Societies, Cultures and Kinship 1580-1850: Cultural Provinces and English, edited by Charles Phythian-Adams, p. 162, 2010.
2. Précis of Edward Walford’s, ‘Southwark: St Saviour’s Church’, in Old and New London, vol., pp. 16-29, 1878.
3. William Boyd, the Guardian, 2005.
4. C 5/2/38
5. C 5/12/13. 1651.
6. TNA, Prob.11/46, f.219v.
7. TNA, Prob.11/103, ff.58v-59r.
8. LMA, DW/PA/5/1592/7.
9. TNA, Prob.11/78, f.77v-78r.
10. B. 2, p. 6.
11. TNA, Prob.11/98, ff.24r-25r.
12. TNA, Prob. 11/318/482, Will of John Shepheard, Grocer of Southwark, November 14, 1665.
13. Beverley Fleet, Virginia Colonial Abstract.
14. Terrell Society of America.
15. SP 46/22/fo87. 25 Apr. 1600.
16. PROB 11/136/408. Nov. 8, 1620.
17. C 6/134/61. 1657.
18. Vol. 1, p. 33.
19. Louisa Co., Va, B. 2, p. 298.
20. Nugent, C&P, vol. iii., p. 303, April 11, 1732.
21. ibid. p. 414.
22. ibid. p. 389.
23. VBSPP, p. 116.
24. See Griffiths pp. 309-11.
25. H1/13/1, 1578
26. See C 5/377/207
27. Rappa. D.B. 6, p. 83, Nov. 4, 1679.
28. Boddie, p. 603.
29. PROB 4/20657, 24 Dec. 1661.
30. Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight County, Virginia, John Bennett Boddie, p. 594.
31. ibid., p. 603.
32. Prob. 11/613/237.
33. Land Office Patents No. 7, 1679-1689 (v.1 & 2 p.1-719), p. 573 (Reel 7).
34. Jefferson Co., KY, Will Book 1, p. 158.
35. Book A, p. 486, November 27, 1752.
36. VBSPP, p. 266.
37. NC State Archives, Granville County.
38. See Will of Mary Arnold, March 4, 1775, Richmond Co. D.B.
39. Will Book G., p. 322, Rowan County, NC.
40. Book B, p. 218.

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